||DIED: 9 Jan 1865
|BIRTH PLACE: Tennessee
|DEATH PLACE: Marion Co., Oregon
MARRIAGE – Daniel Delaney md Elizabeth Mcghee on 6 Dec 1821 in Washington Co., Tennessee.
1850 OR CENSUS - Daniel Delaney, age 57, occupation farmer, b. Tennessee, is enumerated with Elizabeth, age 56, b. Tennessee, along with George, age 19, b. Tennessee, James, age 17, b. Tennessee, Rachel, age 22, b. Tennessee, and Newman, age 3, b. Tennessee.
1860 OR CENSUS - D. Delany Sr., age 67, occupation farmer, b. Tennessee, is enumerated with E., female, age 67, b. Tennessee, along with Rachel, age 26 (sic), b. Oregon, Newman, age 13, b. Oregon, and Jackson, age 3, b. Oregon.
PROBATE – “Delaney, Daniel, File #262, Intestate. Died 9 Jan 1865. Adm: Wm Delaney, 23 Jan 1865. Heirs: Elizabeth, widow; William Delaney, 40; Daniel Delaney, 38; David Delaney, 36 [all of Marion Co.]; George Delaney, 32; James Delaney, 29 [both of Union Co., OR]. A claim was filed for $1000 was filed 2 June 1886 by Rachel and Nathan Brooks for Noah Newman, minor son of Rachel – no relationship indicated.”
DISCREPANCY - name spelled both as Delany and Delaney
Daniel Delany, Sr. - 1843
Daniel Delany, Sr., was of Irish and Dutch ancestry. His wife was Elizabeth Magee. Just prior to 1843 we find Daniel Delany, Sr., a prosperous man of East Tennessee, owning broad acres and many slaves, a southerner in all his precepts, ideas, and sympathies.
Mr. Delany was a man of good education and above average ability; a Methodist as to faith and a true southerner as to politics. A little volume of Scripture verses adorns a case in the Oregon State House and upon the fly leaf one may read: “This little book carried across the plains from Tennessee to Oregon, in 1843, by Daniel Delany, Sr., and read by him and his good wife, every day on this long, arduous journey.”
As Mr. Delany took great interest in things general, he had heard the good reports from the Oregon country by those returning from the west. Mrs. Delany was in poor health and they thought a change of climate might prove beneficial, the western country offering better opportunities for his growing sons as well, so one morning in East Tennessee the plantation was thrown into great consternation by reports that “Marse” Delany was going to sell all his slaves. Just what was going to become of them, where they would go, who would buy them, were topics of vital interest. The prospect of being put upon the slave block and sold was not pleasant to contemplate. This meant a possibility of families being separated. Even wives might be sold from their husbands, babes from their mothers’ arms, in those days of slavery.
Mr. Delany, however, was a very humane man and felt the responsibility of placing his black folk where they would have good care. Finally a man was found – a plantation owner – who agreed to take all the slaves he had. After the deal was made, Mr. Delany bought from this same man a strong young Negro girl named Rachel Belden to have in his family household as a worker and to nurse Mrs. Delany. This slave woman was the first negro woman brought to Marion County, Oregon, and lived in the Delany family until the close of the Civil War, when all slaves were set free, she with the rest. Other mention is made of her elsewhere in this book.
After Mr. Delany sold all his possessions in Tennessee he set his face toward Missouri, the great western rendezvous, and early in the spring of 1843 found them on their way to Oregon via the covered wagon with Independence, Missouri, the starting point.
In this party, consisting of over 300 wagons, were the families of Daniel Delany, Sr., John McHaley, Daniel Waldo, Nesmiths, Applegates, Looneys, Gains, Pughs, Fords, Gilliams, Dennys, and Ollingers, also a young man by the name of Rogers, who was shot and killed with a poisoned arrow by an Indian at Oregon City, the next year. There were others also, but at this late date it is hard to get their names. Dr. Marcus Whitman was captain and guide.
This was the only train that came through in the year 1843 and the Delany family was the only one to bring a wagon clear through to the Willamette Valley. Much could not be learned about the hardships of that very early journey across the plains, as most of all these old pioneers have passed on, but at The Dalles they built rafts by felling dead pine trees, fifty to sixty feet long and by fastening them together with rawhide thongs, wooden pins, etc., they were strong enough to carry the household goods, small implements, etc., while the women and children and some of the men went down the river in Indian canoes. In the meanwhile, the wagons, all but one belonging to Delany, were left at The Dalles. All stock had been swum across the Columbia to follow on down the north side by trail to Vancouver and across the river at this place by Hudson Bay Ferry. At the Cascades (now Cascade Locks) the goods had to be conveyed by portage around the rapids and then via the Hudson Bay boats to Oregon City. The one wagon, mentioned above, was taken apart at The Dalles and brought with the rest of their goods and chattels. At Oregon City portage was again resorted to around the falls and then the immigrants came by boats to Champoeg and on to Mill Creek Prairie overland, where the Delany’s took up their donation land claim. Daniel Delany lived on this claim and prospered, surrounded by his sons and friends of the Oregon Trail. The settlement was near the present town of Turner, Oregon.
Daniel Delany was a great lover of horses and possessed many of the best in the new country. He made many trips to Oregon City in those days, a trip requiring about a week to go and come for supplies for his own family and his neighbors as well. He was possessed of genuine southern hospitality and the wayfarer always knew he could find shelter in the home of old Mr. Delany. He had one hobby, that of cabinet making, and many old pioneer homes were benefited by the easy chairs, cupboards, and household conveniences, made of wood from his handicraft. A rocking chair made by this good man found its way into the Old People’s Home at Salem, Oregon, a gift from his granddaughter, Josie Delany Lafore, where it is greatly prized. At the time it was given it was over seventy-five years old and in good repair, after almost constant use all that time and bids fair to last as many more years.
The children of Daniel Delany and his wife Elizabeth Magee were: John M., who remained in East Tennessee and was later killed in the Civil War.
William came west with his father and then returned to Tennessee, married, and later came back to Oregon and continued his residence there.
David; married Jane Edgar.
George; married Olive Day and made his home near Walla Walla, Washington.
Daniel Jr., married Amanda Walter of Jefferson. They settled near the donation land claim of Daniel Sr., not far from Turner, Oregon.
James, left Oregon and possibly settled in Idaho.
Guests are not all angels that we entertain unawares. Some prove ingrates and one day in January 1865, the country was greatly excited over the news that Daniel Delany, Sr., had been cruelly murdered for his money, of which he was supposed to have a goodly sum, running up to the five figures, hidden in his house.
Two men, named Beale and Baker, to whom Mr. Delany had many times befriended and who had ofttimes accepted of his hospitality overnight, had plotted and carried out this fiendish scheme. These men were the first to hang in Marion County. Mention is made elsewhere in this book of their crime.
Steeves, Sarah Hunt, Book of Remembrance of Marion County Pioneers, 1840-1860, The Berncliff Press, Portland, Or., 1927, pp 12-15
THE MURDER OF DANIEL DELANY, SR.
In January 1865, the cruel murder of Uncle Daniel Delany as he was affectionally called, stirred the settlers in the Waldo Hills country as nothing else had done. For the most part, the early pioneers of this part of the country were God-fearing men and had not come to this far country so much as adventurers, but as peaceable homebuilders. Not many laws were needed in those days, for almost every man had the good of his neighbor at heart and crime among the pioneers was almost unknown.
Mr. Delany was so highly respected and his good deeds of helpfulness to the settlers that came after him so well known, that it is no wonder his tragic death caused such widespread consternation.
It was some time before the guilty ones were brought to justice, but in due time two men named Beale and Baker were hanged at Salem, Oregon, for the crime.
According to the narratives, given by Mrs. La Fore, Mr. Delany was living alone on his farm adjoining that of his son Daniel, Jr. Both farms were near the present town of Turner, Oregon. Mr. Delany’s companion besides the trusty watchdog was a little colored lad named Jack De Wolf. At this time, Mr. Delany’s wife, being an invalid, was not at home, but was being cared for at the home of her son, Daniel Jr. The son was away at the time in Eastern Oregon, where he and a man named David Daley were freighting from The Dalles to Fort Boise. This also caused considerable delay in the wheels of justice. It took considerable time to get word to him and for his return home.
Mr. Delany, Sr., was handy with tools and during his spare time was fond of making chairs and other furniture and many pioneer homes were the more comfortable because of his handicraft.
In those pioneer days, house-room space was necessarily limited and many were the articles that found a resting place under the bed in the living room. There was hardly a “front” room that did not have a bed in one corner, piled so high with its feather tick that one almost needed a ladder when one wanted to retire. What a heavenly softness after a hard day’s work were these old feather beds!
Mr. Delany was in the habit of keeping his nails for his cabinet work in a small keg under his bed, and as Beale had many times accepted of Mr. Delany’s hospitality and felt quite at home in the house, he had noticed this little barrel and had concluded Mr. Delany must keep his money hidden in this place.
Just before this tragedy, Mr. Delany had made a big deal of cattle, realizing quite a large sum of money from the sale. He was generally considered to be a prosperous man, as well as having been known to have brought a goodly amount of money with him from the east, realized from the sale of his plantation and slaves. As there were no banks in the country in the early days, money was usually kept about a man’s premises, hidden in out of the way places.
Beale was pretty well acquainted in the settlement and in his visits to different homes he was wont to talk much about old man Delany’s money. He would talk about the possibility of the old man having quite a sum about his premises. One man related at the trial that he had warned Beale not to think so much about the old man’s money; that it was none of his affair. It was this talk about the money that worked against Beale in the trial and helped convict him. The man Baker was not so well known in the country as Beale, being a newcomer, having just recently started a saloon in Salem.
One evening, just at dusk, so that narrative runs, two men on horseback stopped at a watering trough not far from Mr. Delany’s house. Here they dismounted and blackened their faces so as to pose as Negroes, as Mr. Delany was always friendly to black folk. Beale was on foot, while Baker rode on horseback. Then Baker dismounted and together they came up to the front gate. Beale opened the gate and, walking up to the door, rapped and asked of Mr. Delany the direction to his son Daniel Jr.’s house. Mr. Delany walked around the house, so as better to direct him, and Beale maneuvered so Mr. Delany was brought in line with Baker’s gun. The man at the gate, supposed to be Baker, fired and with the first shot Mr. Delany fell. By this time the dog was making a great noise, so Beale shot him.
After Mr. Delany fell, he tried to get up. He staggered to his feet and walked a few steps, but recognized Beale through his disguise, saying, “I know you, Beale, for God’s sake don’t kill me. Spare my life and you may have all the money I have.” Beale answered, “Old man, dead men tell no tales,” and shot him between the eyes.
The old man was supposed to be living all alone, but there was one eyewitness, the little colored boy, Jack DeWolf.
During the fracas, this little boy, almost scared to death, somehow got hold of his dog, that only proved to be badly wounded, and managed to get under cover of the darkness to the woodshed, where he hid behind a pile of wood. Here he lay shivering all night, afraid to move. When morning came and he saw there was no one around, he crept out of hiding and ran to Daniel Delany, Jr.’s, home, where he reported what had happened. The lad said that after he had seen Mr. Delany shot, he bolted the door and it was when Beale and Baker began to break down the door that the boy fled to the woodpile. The house showed it had been ransacked, but it was never known how much money the men took. They were known to have been poor men; but at the trial seemed to have sufficient funds to defend themselves and after the hanging members of the family seemed to have plenty of money. The next day, at the watering trough where the two men had stopped, was found material for blacking their faces and a hat-band that exactly fitted the new appearing stripe around the otherwise faded hat that one of the men wore when arrested for the murder.
These two men were very vindictive, even to the last, and Mrs. La Fore, who was a child of twelve years and present at the hanging of these men for killing the grandfather she loved so dearly, said as the officer went to adjust the noose on the neck of one of the men, he did his best to spit upon William Delany, one of the old man’s sons, who stood near.
The scaffold upon which these men were hanged was set up at the left, as you go south, near the north approach of the bridge across the creek on South Church Street in a clump of small oak trees that are still standing at this date of 1926. The hanging took place on May 17, 1865.
After the men were pronounced dead, there was much discussion what was to be done with the bodies. No cemetery wardens wanted the honor of holding the bodies, so it was then that Mr. Daniel Waldo stepped forward and said since he did not profess to be a Christian, like many present, he would give them decent burial; so the bodies were turned over to him. He took them in his farm wagon and buried them on a little knoll on his farm among the hills that bear his name. He put up a fence of palings and for years this was a landmark, pointed out to folk as they passed along the road. At this writing there is nothing left of the old fence – only a weed grown spot on the hillside, and in a very few years the ploughshare will glide along to remove forever all trace of the graves of the first men to die for crime at Salem, Oregon.
Both Beale and Baker made a confession and, like most cases, each tried to shift the blame on the other. Both admitted entering into the plot to rob old man Delany, and Beale sets the sum of money found in his house after the murder at $1400. Five hundred of this he gave to Baker on the way back to Salem.
Interested parties believe a much larger sum was found, amounting to many thousands.
It was just a sordid story they told of drunkenness, debauchery, and usual crime that follows in its wake.
Steeves, Sarah Hunt, Book of Remembrance of Marion County Pioneers, 1840-1860, The Berncliff Press, Portland, Or., 1927, pp 19-21
Perhaps no murder trial which has ever been conducted in Oregon received wider attention from the people than that of Beale and Baker, in Salem, in March, 1865.
On January 9, Daniel Delaney, an old farmer living six miles south of Salem, had been called from his house at dusk, shot and killed, and his house robbed of a large sum of money. Delaney had lived alone for some time, save for a negro boy twelve years of age, who as soon as he recovered from his fright alarmed the neighbors. The news spread rapidly and the greatest excitement prevailed everywhere, for Delaney was one of the best known of the early pioneers.
Suspicion soon pointed its finger to George Beale, a prominent saloon-keeper of Salem, who had worked several years for Delaney on his farm and who had frequently discussed with his friends his belief that Delaney had large sums of money hidden about his house. He had said that he believed he knew where it was, and had predicted somebody would murder the old man for his money – that it could be easily done without danger of the perpetrator being discovered, etc. Naturally these conversations were recalled by those who had heard them, as they discussed the appalling tragedy. Investigation also disclosed the fact that Beale was away from home on the night of the murder and had staid all night at the farm of William Taylor, an uncle of his wife, on the night before that. Other circumstances strengthened the suspicion and within a few days he was arrested, accused of the murder. With him was arrested a man named Baker, a butcher, and the two were charged by the grand jury with murder in the first degree.
Beale was a prominent Mason and had good standing with the business men of Salem. He kept a saloon, to be sure, but his character as a man of integrity had not been questioned and his arrest caused general surprise.
The trial began on March 20 and was one of the most notable in the history of our State courts. The accused men were prosecuted by Williams and Mallory and were defended by David Logan, assisted by Caton and Curl, of Salem. Rufus Mallory, one of his prosecutors, was elected to Congress the next year, and Richard Williams, his partner, was given the same honor eleven years later. David Logan, one of the best criminal lawyers in the State, was ably assisted by the local firm. Reuben P. Boise, who continued in the judicial service of the State for forty years afterwards, and who had then been on the bench for ten years, presided.
It was a forensic battle among the “higher-ups” that will long be referred to by the State lawyers as one that put the contestants on their mettle and made lasting reputations for those who participated. It was a case purely of circumstantial evidence, but incidents fitted in so closely that the evidence was regarded as completely and conclusively proving the guilt of the accused men. After a trial lasting one week, the jurors found a verdict without delay.
When Judge Boise read the verdict he requested Beale to stand up, and asked him if there was any reason why he should not be sentenced. Beale said:
“I don’t know that there is. I don’t think I have a friend in the community. There has been false swearing against me here in this court. Everybody seems to think I ought to die and I suppose I must be hung to satisfy them. I hope everybody here is as ready to die as I am. I expect soon to meet old man Delaney in the other world and will say to him, ‘Delaney, it was not me who killed you.’ I knew the old man well in this world and always was a friend to him. I am an innocent man. Give me time, Judge Boise, and I can prove my innocence – I know I can.”
When he resumed his seat, Judge Boise said: “The court does not see how the jury could come to any other conclusion than it did. The accused did not attempt to show their whereabouts and the jury was warranted in their conclusion. A man who will steal will lie about it, and a man who will murder will lie about it. They always declare themselves innocent. I never knew it to fail. There remains no doubt that Daniel Delaney died at your hands. There is no hope for you to escape and it only remains for you to prepare for death. I advise you so to prepare, and that you confess and make some restitution to Delaney’s heirs. The old man’s money was sweat for and hoarded up for them. Let it be your last act to restore it.”
Beale and Baker were hanged in Salem on May 17, on a public square, in the presence of at least one thousand spectators. Persons came from the surrounding counties – whole families eating their luncheons in their wagons, having tied their teams near by, in order that none of the details might be missed.
As I have already narrated, I was living with Beale’s family at the time he committed this murder, and, as the occurrence broke up his household, my schooldays were permanently terminated. This circumstance of my association with Beale did not deter me from the desire to see him hanged – must I confess it? It may have been the reason I harbored the desire. At any rate, I walked to Salem, a distance of seven miles, carried a luncheon with me prepared by my grandmother – having not a cent of money – and was so fortunate (?) as to get a good position near the scaffold. I remember seeing the two men walk up the steps to the platform, with their guards, and closely watched them as the black cap was drawn down over their faces. At this moment, I recall distinctly the shudder that went over my body when this was done, as it caused me to realize the awful feeling they must have experienced as that cap cut off their vision of this world forever. For a moment, I felt an intense revulsion against the whole proceeding, or rather against being a part of the crowd that had assembled to witness it, but I soon recovered, as a woman immediately behind me fainted and was carried from the grounds.
Sam Headrick was the sheriff, and I remember that when the trap was sprung and the men shot downward to the end of the rope he dropped to his knees in prayer for a moment, as if to ask for forgiveness for the performance of his distressing official duty.
A few days before their execution Beale and Baker made a full confession of the murder. Their intention, they declared, was merely to rob Delaney. They planned to call him out, as they did, and Baker was then to cover him with his gun while Beale was to ransack the house and get the money. But when Baker pointed his gun toward the old man, Beale, fearing he might shoot, since he had been drinking quite heavily, shouted, “Don’t shoot!” At once, Baker fired his gun and Delaney fell dead. He afterward said he thought Beale said “Shoot!” seeing perhaps some danger which he did not, and obeyed what he thought was an order.
It would be a difficult matter to find to-day a man in Marion, Linn or Polk Counties, who was living in them in 1865, who was not present at the hanging of Beale and Baker. Most of them at the time said they “had business in Salem that day, anyway,” and, being there, attended the “hanging.” That people would not flock to see such a gruesome sight to-day, if the opportunity offered, is an evidence that some progress has been made along certain lines – or would they?
Fifty Years in Oregon, Chapter 16, by T. T. Geer.
Big Salem Murder Story
Sensation 80 Years Ago
By Ben Maxwell
Salem’s first big murder story made the headlines 80 years ago. Folks discussed the crime for two decades and the lurid, double execution for that crime occurred in the frontier village that was Salem in 1865. It was a pioneer Salem with a few muddy streets, sinister dives, and a clique of hard-drinking, hell-raising citizens.
Beale and Baker murdered old man Delaney for a cache of gold coin. They were hanged before spectators estimated to number between one and five thousand.
Daniel Delaney came to Oregon in 1843 from the south. He had sold his slaves and was well-to-do and hospitable. George Beale, who had worked for old man Delaney, was often his guest at the farm home about a mile west of Turner.
Beale knew a lot about the Delaney household. He knew that the old man had money and had recently sold many cattle for cash. He believed he knew where the wealth was hidden.
Beale knew a lot, but he did not know enough to keep his mouth shut. He discussed freely the old man’s wealth and told confidants how easy it would be to lay Delaney low and take his cash.
Even so, nearly everyone liked George Beale. He was a genial, good-looking fellow who operated a saloon where the Marion hotel now stands. He was a member of a secret and honorable fraternity.
George Baker was different. He was a Johnny-come-lately to Salem. Things were said about the Indian woman who was his wife and he was a frequent patron in Beale’s saloon. Baker was a butcher by trade.
Murder on Sunday
In the twilight of a Sunday afternoon, January 9, 1865, two men who looked like Negroes drove up to Daniel Delaney’s home. One went to the door and asked to be directed to the home of one of the old man’s sons. Delaney stepped outside.
At this point the stories differ in details, but a musket spit fire. Old man Delaney died. Then Beale and Baker entered Delaney’s house, ransacked it. Admittedly, they took, $1400 in cash and some believed the loot was much more.
But the crime was neither unseen nor unheard. Living with Delaney was Jack DeWolf, a 12-year-old Negro who heard the commotion and bolted the door, then fled and hid in the woodpile. The trembling “nigger in the woodpile” heard and saw a lot. He believed he recognized one of the robbers.
Next morning, the boy sought relatives and friends of Delaney to tell his story.
Within a few days Beale and Baker were under arrest. Beale had not been home the night before the murder, nor could he explain his whereabouts the night of the crime. Materials used for blackening the faces, along with a telltale hatband, were found near the old watering trough on Turner Road where the pair had applied their makeup.
Marion County grand jury indicted Beale and Baker for murder in the first degree. Their trial opened March 20, 1865. Judge Ruben P. Boise presided. Williams and Mallory were the prosecutors. David Logan, assisted by Caton and Curl of Salem defended. It was a battle of the giants in early Oregon pleading. Reputations were enhanced. Williams soon entered congress, Mallory later.
Most of the evidence, except for the testimony of Jack DeWolf, was circumstantial, but overwhelming. On March 25, the jury returned a verdict of guilty. Beale denied guilt. Judge Boise told him he was surely lying.
In Little Red Jail
Both murderers were confined in a small red jail at the northeast corner of the courthouse grounds. Wilbur Brothers went about building a double gallows in a grove of small oak trees at the southeast corner of Church and Mill streets. (Today large and mature oak trees grow in this locality.)
From chambers in the old Griswold building Judge Boise sentenced the pair to be hanged on May 17, 1865.
It was the first execution in Salem and none thereafter was ever better attended.
Folks drove in from all parts of Marion County and others from Polk, Yamhill, and Linn. Some came on foot. They brought their women along and children too. Gentlemen were there in top hats and flowered waistcoats. Barflies who used to hang around Beale’s place turned out to see him die.
Little T.T. Geer, who had lived with the Beale family, took a lunch, put up by his grandmother, and trudged seven miles to see the execution. This boy, who 30 years later became governor of Oregon, recalls in his autobiography that he felt a revulsion at being part of the crowd.
E.M. Croisan, now perhaps the only living person who saw the execution, remembers that the Marion Rifles of 25 or 30 men formed around this local hotel bus that came to the jail to pick up the condemned.
Beale and Baker stood upon the scaffold facing a multitude. If they were repentant, they did not show it. Mrs. Josie Delaney LaFore, then a child of 12 and a granddaughter of old man Delaney, recalled that one of them, just before swinging into eternity, tried to spit upon William Delaney, one of the old man’s sons.
Hawker’s cries interrupted the last thoughts of Beale and Baker. A few days before the execution both confessed and tried to fix the blame on one another. Frederick G. Schwatka, a printer, seized upon the confession as a business opportunity and was selling his documents to the crowd as a souvenir.
Sheriff Headrick Prays
Sam Headrick was sheriff. It was his duty to spring the trap – which he did, and then dropped upon his knees in prayer to ask forgiveness.
In death, Beale and Baker had small interest for the spectators, who silently slipped halters and drove away. A few remained to arrange disposal of the bodies. No churchwarden was anxious to receive them within the sacred precincts of their cemetery. Baker’s relatives, some commentators relate, claimed his remains and removed them to a family plot.
Beale’s body remained unclaimed. His family did not desire it. Then Daniel Waldo, for whom the Waldo Hills were named, said that he, because he did not profess to be a Christian like those present, would provide decent burial for Beale’s body.
Waldo loaded the box into his wagon and drove to his home in the Waldo Hills. There he buried Beale on a hillside and built a rail fence around the grave. Now the fence has fallen away, but inquiring persons who travel southward on the highway between Macleay and Shaw may still see the old, thorny, unkempt white rose that seasonally blooms on the grave of George Beale.
Capital Journal 17 Mar 1945
SEE ALSO - The Delaney Murder Trial: http://www.oregonpioneers.com/gbtrial.htm
SEE ALSO - article about the moving of the house, with pictures at: http://www.oldhouseworld.com/crogilbyco.com_files/Page644.htm (This is info from C. R. Olgilby & Co. – the contractor who moved the house, a “building preservation & relocation specialist”)
Daniel Delany Sr.
Pioneer of 1843
(shares marker with Elizabeth)
Tennessee Marriages to 1825
1850 OR CENSUS (Marion Co., FA #296)
1860 OR CENSUS (Marion Co., Sublimity, FA #2949)
Marion County OR Probate, Vol. I, pg 62
Steeves, pp 12-15
Fifty Years in Oregon, Chapter 16, by T. T. Geer.
CJ 17 Mar 1945